Terpenes are volatile, aromatic oils that produce strong effects on the body. They affect receptors and neurotransmitters in the brain, mimicking antidepressants like Prozac and Elavil. Researchers want to determine exactly how each terpene works, and how they play off each other.
Currently, the accepted knowledge is that terpenes compound or lighten the effects of cannabinoids THC and CBD (among others) by binding to endocannabinoid receptors and neurotransmitters and imitating compounds our bodies naturally produce (to regulate emotions, weight, health, etc).
The secondary terpenes found in marijuana are as follows:
- Sabinene has a woody flavor with spicy, peppery notes. It has been shown to aid digestion, relieve arthritis and soothe skin conditions.
- Phellandrene is known for its peppermint flavor, with slight citrus notes. It possesses antidepressantproperties.
- Borneol has a minty aroma and is found in high concentrations in herbs such as rosemary and mint. It has both anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
- Isoborneol has a sweet and musty flavor; also found in mugwort, isoborneol exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and it inhibits the herpes simplex type 1 virus, which causes cold sores.
- Phytol results from the breakdown of a green pigment called chlorophyll. It has a floral, balsamic flavor and demonstrates sedative and anti-anxiety effects through inhibiting the activity of an enzyme that degrades GABA, which is a chemical found in the brain.
Terpenes can be classified as primary or secondary, depending on their role: Primary terpenes are essential for plant growth and development, while secondary terpenes are involved in plant defenses. Below is a list of the primary types of terpenes and their characteristics
- Pinene gives marijuana its earthy, pine-like flavor and spicy, herbal notes. This terpene crosses the blood-brain barrier and promotes memory retention and alertness by inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholinesterase, which is a chemical found in the brain. It also acts as both a bronchodilator and an anti-inflammatory.
- Caryophyllene has a peppery flavor and a spicy, earthy aroma with citrus notes. It is the only terpene known to act on the endocannabinoid system, which regulates a variety of physiological processes, including pain sensation and inflammation. Activation of the CB2 receptors by caryophyllene is instrumental in enhancing marijuana’s anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
- Humulene gives marijuana its robust, woody flavor and spicy, herbal notes. This terpene possesses anti-inflammatory properties and acts as an appetite suppressant.
- Linalool has a floral flavor reminiscent of lavender, with the addition of spicy overtones. It exhibits powerful analgesic and anti-seizure properties and is partly responsible for the sedative effects of certain marijuana strains. It also has strong antibacterial, anti-cancer and antifungal effects.
- Myrcene is the most common terpene found in marijuana, and it is also present in bay, thyme, hops and lemongrass. This musky terpene is a potent analgesic, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory, and its concentration determines whether a strain has an energizing or sedative effect. Strains containing more than 0.5 percent of myrcene have a sedative effect, while strains containing less than 0.5 percent myrcene produce an energizing effect.
- Terpinolene has a woody flavor and is responsible for many of the floral notes characteristic of Jack Herer varieties of marijuana. It has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-cancer and sedative properties.
- Limonene is most often found in sativa strains of marijuana and has a citrus flavor reminiscent of oranges. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and it is known to activate enzymes that stimulate the liver and increase bile flow, which in turn aids digestion. Studies show that limonene can also help treat anxiety and depression.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects. They often have a strong odor and may protect the plants that produce them by deterring herbivores and by attracting predators and parasites of herbivores.
One of the most celebrated health benefits of CBD is its analgesic (pain relieving) effects. It’s thought that CBD interacts with receptors in the brain and immune system to reduce inflammation and alleviate pain
Cannabis has two primary species, hemp and marijuana. Both contain CBD, but there’s a much higher percentage in hemp, which also has very low (less than 0.3%) levels of THC compared to marijuana.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring compound found in the resinous flower of cannabis, a plant with a rich history as a medicine going back thousands of years. … That’s because CBD and THC act in different ways on different receptors in the brain and body. CBD is one of more than a hundred “phytocannabinoids,” which are unique to cannabis. CBD is closely related to another important medicinally active phytocannabinoid: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the compound that causes the high that cannabis is known for. But unlike THC, CBD does not make a person feel “stoned” or intoxicated. That’s because CBD and THC act in different ways on different receptors in the brain and body.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) are the two most prominent cannabinoids found within the trichomes of living cannabis plants. BothTHCA and CBDA are precursors to their pharmacologically active, commonly consumed analogues, THC and CBD
They affect brain areas that influence pleasure, memory, thinking, concentration, movement, coordination, and sensory and time perception. Because of this similarity, THC is able to attach to molecules called cannabinoid receptors on neurons in these brain areas and activate them, disrupting various mental and physical functions and causing the effects described earlier.
Cannabinoid receptors are concentrated in certain areas of the brain associated with thinking, memory, pleasure, coordination and time perception. THC attaches to these receptors and activates them and affects a person’s memory, pleasure, movements, thinking, concentration, coordination, and sensory and time perception, according to NIDA.
any of a group of closely related compounds which include cannabinol and the active constituents of cannabis.
THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is the chemical responsible for most of marijuana’s psychological effects. It acts much like the cannabinoid chemicals made naturally by the body, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).
tetrahydrocannabinol, a crystalline compound that is the main active ingredient of cannabis.
“Hybrid” cannabis strains are strains like Blue Dream, Jilly Bean, Dutch Treat, and Banana Kush. They are mix (a hybrid) of the other two main classes of cannabis — “indica” and “sativa”. Hybrids often provide a more balanced combination of indica and sativa’s effects.
Hybrid cannabis strains are a blend of sativa and indica strains. Hybrid strains are usually broken into three categories: sativa-dominant, indica dominant and 50/50 hybrids. Hybrid strains are frequently used to help alleviate stress, headaches and depression.
The high produced from smoking Indica bud is a strong physical body high that will make you sleepy or ‘couch-locked’ and provides a deep relaxation feeling. Indica-dominant marijuana strains tend to have a strong sweet or sour odor to the buds.
Indica is a subspecies of the cannabis plant, Cannabis sativa indica, having a short stem and broad leaves and grown mainly for use in drugs. cannabis made from indica plants and used as a psychoactive (mind-altering) drug. It is sometimes characterized as more relaxing in effect than the sativa variety.
Marijuana gardeners often choose Cannabis Sativa strains for their uplifting highs and cerebral effects. While pure Sativa strains may take longer to flower than pure Cannabis Indica strains, growers are rewarded for their efforts with outstanding yields.
Sativa is a subspecies of the cannabis plant, Cannabis sativa sativa, having a long stem and narrow leaves and grown for hemp fiber as well as for use in drugs. “sativa plants grow best in warmer environments” cannabis made from sativa plants and used as a psychoactive (mind-altering) drug. It is sometimes characterized as more stimulating in effect than the indica variety.